How can I get the private key from wallet.dat from 2011 ...
How can I get the private key from wallet.dat from 2011 ...
Data directory - Bitcoin Wiki
blockchain.info - Dumping private keys from wallet.dat ...
bitcoin-qt - Bitcoin Cash Node documentation
A Guide to Keeping Keys Offline Using Armory +rPi
Hi Redditors. I am going to post in this thread my experiences in getting my Desktop (Debian) machine running Armory in watch-only mode, and coupling that with an offline Raspberry Pi (which holds my private keys) for signing the transactions previously made in watch-only mode. I actually compiled Armory from source directly on my Pi. This guide is probably more for the bitcoin 'power user', as to run Armory online, and broadcast the signed transactions, you need to have a bitcoin full node running (bitcoind). Basic requirements:
Online machine - running a full node (bitcoind)
Raspberry Pi - I used an old Pi 1 Model B with just 512Mb memory, and 2 USB slots.
2x USB thumb-drives. One for wallet backups, the other for transferring unsigned tx's to the rPi, and signed tx's back to the Desktop.
Armory 0.96.4 for the Raspberry Pi 1, Model B (512Mb RAM, 2xUSB) (compiled from github sourcecode on the Pi itself!)
Using the Pi as an offline complement to a Debian Desktop "watch-only" Armory install.
Desktop Debian Armory watch-only talks to my full node, bitcoind, which is also on the Debian desktop.
I'll post the guide in digestible sections...
I should begin by saying I installed source code from git, and got Armory to build the DB on my desktop initially, WITHOUT creating a wallet.. (This allowed me to debug what was going on a little!)
Go to Bitcoin.org, select Armory.. It leads to a Download from Git: https://github.com/goatpig/BitcoinArmory/releases Followed the procedure for Linux Debian verify code, compile, install, all straight-forward.. Began by running bitcoind, and telling Armory where to find it. This is the command I used, obviously it was all on one line and didn't include the arrows/explanations!:
python ArmoryQt.py \ --satoshi-datadir=/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks \ # <-----(where my bitcoind blocks live) --datadir=/ArmoryDataDi \ # <-----(this is instead of ~/.armory) --dbdir=/ArmoryDataDidatabases # <-------(again, non std. place used for Armory's databases.. my choice.)
So, on the Desktop, after the initial "build databases" (NB the initial "Build Databases" took about 1.5h and my two CPUs were maxed the whole time, Temps up to 62C. Not ideal; Im not in a rush!) I then wanted to import a watch-only wallet. Before I did this, I took a full backup of the Armory data dir: /ArmoryDataDi (or ~/.armory in a default installation). I'd hate to have to make Armory do another full sync with the bitcoind node!
Next step: offline wallet (with Private Keys) is on a Raspberry Pi. I downloaded the source and managed to compile it on the pi itself! :) Though there were some gymnastics needed to setup the Pi. My Pi is running Raspbian based on Wheezy.. quite old! I did the following on the Pi:
apt-get update apt-get upgrade (<---took about an hour!) apt-get install autotools-dev apt-get install autoconf
Then I followed the instructions exactly as I had done for my Debian Desktop machine, EXCEPT: I had to increase the Pi's swap space. I upped it from 100Mb to 400Mb. The compilation took 7 hours, and my poor SD card got a thrashing. But after compilation, I put the Swap back to 100Mb and Armory runs ok with about 150Mb of memory (no swap needed). Swap increase on the Pi: use your favourite editor, and open the file /etc/dphys-swapfile add/change the following line:
Then, REBOOT the Pi:
sudo shutdown -h -P now
Once the compilation was done on the Pi, put the swap back, rebooted and created an Armory wallet. I added manual entropy and upped the encryption 'time' from 250ms to 2500ms - since the Pi is slow, but I'll be happy to wait for more iterations in the Key Derivation Function. Once the wallet was created, it obviously prompts you for backup. I want to add a private key of my own (i.e. import), so don't do the backup until this is over. I import my Private Key, and Armory checks that this corresponds to a Public Key, which I check is correct. This is the point now where the Pi storage medium (e.g an SD card) has to be properly destroyed if you ever get rid of it. I had thought that now would be a good time to decide if your new wallet will generate Segwit receiving addresses, and also addresses used to receive 'change' after a transaction.. But it seems Armory WON'T let you switch to P2SH-P2WPKH unless your Armory is connected to a node offering "WITNESS" service. Obviously, my Pi is offline and will never connect to a node, so the following will not work on the Pi:
x Use File Settings Fee and address types.
x Set the "Preferred Receive Address Type" to P2SH-P2WPKH
x Also Set the "Change Address" to P2SH-P2WPKH for left-over loose change!
NB: I thought about setting this on the Debian "watch-only" wallet, but that would surely mean doom, as the Pi would not know about those addresses and backups might not keep them.. who knows... So, end result:- no segwit for me just yet in my offline funds.
--If anyone can offer a solution to this, I'd be very grateful--
Ok, now this is a good point to back up your wallet on the Pi. It has your imported keys. I choose a Digital Backup - and put it on a USB key, which will never touch the internet and will be stored off-site. I also chose to encrypt it, because I'm good with passwords.. NB: The Armory paper backup will NOT back up your imported private keys, so keep those somewhere if you're not sweeping them. It would be prudent to have an Armory paper backup anyway, but remember it will likely NOT help you with that imported key. Now for the watch-only copy of the wallet. I want to get the "watch-only" version onto my Desktop Debian machine. On the Pi, I created (exported to a USB key) a "watching-only" copy of my wallet. I would use the RECOMMENDED approach, export the "Entire Wallet File". As you will see below, I initially exported only the ROOT data, which will NOT capture the watching-only part of the Private Key I entered manually above (i.e. the public Key!). Now, back on the Debian Desktop machine... I stopped all my crontab jobs; just give Armory uninterrupted CPU/memory/disk... I also stopped bitcoind and made a backup prior to any watch-only wallet being imported. I already made a backup of Armory on my Desktop, before any wallet import. (this was needed, as I made a mistake.. see below) So on the Debian Desktop machine, I begin by firing up bitcoind. my command for this is:
I know from bitter experience that doing a scan over the blockchain for a new wallet takes a looong time and a lot of CPU, and I'd like it to play nicely; not gobble all the memory and swap and run my 2xCPUs both at 100% for four hours... So... I aim to run with --ram-usage=X and --thread-count=X (For me in the end, X=1 but I began with X=4) I began with --ram-usage=4 (<--- = 4x128Mb) The result is below...
TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects
It didn't recognise the ram-usage and carried on, crippling my Debian desktop PC. This is where it gets dangerous; Armory can gobble so much memory and CPU that the windowing environment can cease up, and it can take over 30 minutes just to exit nicely from bitcoind and ArmoryDB. So, I ssh to the machine from another computer, and keep an eye on it with the command
I'd also be able to do a "sudo reboot now" if needed from here.
So, trying to get my --ram-usage command recognised, I tried this line (added quotes):
Loading Armory Engine: Armory Version: 0.96.4 Armory Build: None PyBtcWallet Version: 1.35 Detected Operating system: Linux OS Variant : ('debian', '9.4', '') User home-directory : /home/ Satoshi BTC directory : /BlockChain/chain20180414 Armory home dir : /ArmoryDataDi ArmoryDB directory : /ArmoryDataDidatabases Armory settings file : /ArmoryDataDiArmorySettings.txt Armory log file : /ArmoryDataDiarmorylog.txt Do wallet checking : True (ERROR) ArmoryUtils.py:3723 - Unsupported language specified. Defaulting to English (en) (ERROR) ArmoryQt.py:1833 - Failed to start Armory database: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects Traceback (most recent call last): File "ArmoryQt.py", line 1808, in startArmoryDBIfNecessary TheSDM.spawnDB(str(ARMORY_HOME_DIR), TheBDM.armoryDBDir) File "/BitcoinArmory/SDM.py", line 387, in spawnDB pargs.append('--ram-usage=' + ARMORY_RAM_USAGE) TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects
So, I edit the Armory python file SDM.py:
if ARMORY_RAM_USAGE != -1: pargs.append('--ram-usage=4') #COMMENTED THIS, SO I CAN HARDCODE =4 # ' + ARMORY_RAM_USAGE)
Running it, I now have acknowledgement of the --ram-usage=4:
(WARNING) SDM.py:400 - Spawning DB with command: /BitcoinArmory/ArmoryDB --db-type="DB_FULL" --cookie --satoshi-datadir="/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks" --datadir="/ArmoryDataDi" --dbdir="/ArmoryDataDidatabases" --ram-usage=4
Also, even with ram-usage=4, it used too much memory, so I told it to quit. It took over 30 minutes to stop semi-nicely. The last thing it reported was:
ERROR - 00:25:21: (StringSockets.cpp:351) FcgiSocket::writeAndRead FcgiError: unexpected fcgi header version
But that didn't seem to matter or corrupt the Armory Database, so I think it's ok. So, I get brave and change SDM.py as below, and I make sure my script has a command line for --ram-usage="ABCDE" and --thread-count="FGHIJ"; the logic being that these strings "ABCDE" will pass the IF criteria below, and my hardcoded values will be used...
if ARMORY_RAM_USAGE != -1: pargs.append('--ram-usage=1') #COMMENTED THIS, SO I CAN HARDCODE =1 # ' + ARMORY_RAM_USAGE) if ARMORY_THREAD_COUNT != -1 pargs.append('--thread-count=1') #COMMENTED THIS, SO I CAN HARDCODE =1 #' + ARMORY_THREAD_COUNT)
So, as usual, I use my script and start this with: ./StartArm.sh (which uses command line:)
(this forces it to use my hard-coded values in SDM.py...) So, this is the command which it reports that it starts with:
(WARNING) SDM.py:400 - Spawning DB with command: /BitcoinArmory/ArmoryDB --db-type="DB_FULL" --cookie --satoshi-datadir="/BlockChain/chain20180414/blocks" --datadir="/ArmoryDataDi" --dbdir="/ArmoryDataDidatabases" --ram-usage=1 --thread-count=1
Again, this is where it gets dangerous; Armory can gobble so much memory and CPU that the windowing environment can cease up. So I ssh to the machine and keep an eye on it with:
So, on the Debian Desktop PC, I inserted the USB stick with the watch-only wallet I exported from the Pi. Start Armory... Import "Entire Wallet File" watch-only copy. Wait 4 hours.. YAY!!! After running Armory for about 30m, the memory usage dropped by 400m... wierd... It took ~2 hours to get 40% completion. After 3.5 hours it's almost there... The memory went up to about 1.7Gb in use and 900Mb of Swap, but the machine remained fairly responsive throughout, apart from a few (10?) periods at the start, where it appeared to freeze for 10-30s at a time. (That's where my ssh session came in handy - I could check the machine was still ok with a "free -h" command) Now, I can: Create an unsigned transaction on my Desktop, Save the tx to USB stick, Move to the Pi, Sign the tx, Move back to the Desktop, Broadcast the signed tx.
My initial Mistake: This caused me to have to roll-back my Armory database, using the backup. so you should try to avoid doing this.. On the Pi, I exported only the ROOT data, which will NOT capture the watching-only part of the Private Key It is RECOMMENDED to use the Digital Export of Entire Wallet File from the Pi when making a watch-only copy. If you just export just the "ROOT data", not the "Entire Wallet File", you'll have problems if you used an imported Private Key in the offline wallet, like I did. Using the ROOT data text import, after it finished... my balance was zero. So,. I tried a Help->Rescan Balance (Restart Armory, takes 1minute to get back up and running) No Luck. Still zero balance. So, I try Rescan Databases.. This will take longer. Nah.. no luck. So, I tried again, thinking it might be to do with the fact that I imported the text "root data" stuff, instead of following the (Recommended) export of watching-wallet file. So, I used my Armory backup, and wound back the ArmoryDataDi to the point before the install of the (zero balance) wallet. (you should not need to do this, as you will hopefully use the RECOMMENDED approach of exporting the "Entire Wallet File"!)
The bitcoin-qt core wallet in pruned mode, cold storage and scaling: test results.
Importing "watch only" addresses (cold storage), creating a wallet in pruned mode and a pruned blockchain and then importing the private key to go from cold to hot storage works just fine in bitcoin-qt (after a restart).
However, when importing "watch only" addresses AFTER creating the blockchain the balances are not visible and require to download the full blockchain again (95 GB).
As far as I understand it this is not necessary, as the balances (not the history) can be obtained from the UTXO set and a new download is not necessary. I made this an issue on Github (and just got a positive feedback).
A possible use case: a user downloads (or gets it from a usb) a 2.5 GB pruned blockchain, checks it (maybe some options or software needs to be developed) and creates a wallet and imports his own addresses and/or private keys WITHOUT HAVING TO CREATE THE PRUNED BLOCHCHAIN HIMSELF, WHICH IS VITAL IN ORDER TO SCALE BITCOIN.
At the moment keeping a pruned blockchain up-to-date is not a big deal. It requires (blocksonly=1) about 3 GB of disk space and 1/600 MB/s=1.7 kB/s=13 kb/s of download bandwidth. Downloading all raw blocks and creating the pruned blockchain is very resource intensive process and can take a long time (already).
Trusting that electrum servers wil always be available is tricky (especially when blocks get bigger than 1MB) as I, for example, was not able to do it with my hardware and I'm not the only one: https://redd.it/3gg0wh
DETAILS First a wallet was created in the following way: bitcoin-qt -connect=wrong_ip_address -prune=550 -listen=0 -datadir=/home/use.bitcoin_pruned & The trick here is to add a wrong ip address so bitcoin-qt won't start loading blocks. The -listen=0 makes it possible to run bitcoin-qt while bitcoind (as a full archival node) is running in the background on the same computer.
Now some "watch only" addresses, that already had some bitcoin in them, were added (in bitcoin-qt: help -> Debug window -> Console) importaddress watch_only_address "" false The pruned blockchain was then created by inserting the correct ip address (pointing to my node) or by removing "-connect=ip_address" completely.
Because bitcoin-qt was not the only program, creating the pruned blockchain was a very long process that took about 5 days! I could speed up the process a lot by turning off bitcoind and running the pruned node as a bitcoind with some extra priority: sudo /usbin/ionice -c 2 -n 0 /usbin/nice -n -20 ./bitcoind -datadir=/home/use.bitcoin_pruned/ Had I done that from the start, it could have been much faster and maybe 1 or 2 days would have been enough. The final pruned blockchain has a size of: 2542 MB so about 2.5 GB.
I now moved the wallet.dat to wallet.dat_back and restarted bitcoin-qt. The program will create a new wallet that can be used to receive and then send transactions. If you now add a private key that already has some bitcoins in it, they will NOT be visible. There is no reason for that as the balances (not the history) are in the UTXO set.
I now started bitcoin-qt with the original wallet.dat file. The bitcoins in the watch only addresses are now visible. I then imported the private key of one of the addresses but the move of the bitcoins from "Watch only" to "Spendable" was not visible in bitcoin-qt. However, after a restart of bitcoin-qt the funds were visible in the "Spendable" section of the wallet. I then did a transaction to another address. Now in this case I want the change of the transaction to stay within MY "watch only" addresses and they shouldn't move to the (arbitrary) addresses created when the wallet was created. This is fortunate possible in bitcoin-qt. You have to choose in bitcoin-qt: Settings -> Options -> Wallet -> Enable coin controle features. It is then possible to choose the return address to be one of the watch only addresses (with or without bitcoins in them). It all worked just fine! It is not clear to me why bitcoin-qt has the option to "importprunedfunds", that doesn't seem necessary.
Of course, a big thank you to all developers who implemented the currently available great features.
So if you have a moderately powerful gaming desktop with a Quad-Core CPU like an i5 or better and 8+GB of RAM, you can easily run your own little UASF node in the background. Once it's done syncing with the network, you won't even notice it's there. Here's how. You will need :
Some sort of virtualization solution (I used Hyper-V)
Enough disk space for the blockchain (around 130GB, but you also need room for it to grow)
The following assumes you know how to install Linux in a Virtual Machine Step I. - Installation. Go through expert install and set up a base system with only ssh server enabled. For partitioning, you can do just one big disk and everything in one partition, but if you happen to have a computer that has both SSD's and HDD's, it would be optimal to create two virtual disks and use a small one for the OS on the SSD and a larger one on the HDD in a custom mount point for the blockchain. Reboot and ssh into the server. Step II. - Build requirements. A few things need to be taken care of. First, you'll want to edit the /etc/network/interfaces file and set up a static IP. Once that's done, stop by your router and make sure that traffic on port 8333 is forwarded to your debian VM. Then, install some packages we need :
...and wait about thirty hours to sync with the network. You may want to visit the /whereveyou/want/youblockchain directory and create a permanent bitcoin.conf in there. To enable RPC calls to the server and get it to accept bitcoin-cli commands you'll want to use it to create a usepassword and copy that to your user's /.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf. Minimal bitcoin.conf example
Security I recommend you disable password login and use private key authentication only on ssh, and also restrict iptables rules to the bare minimum that must be allowed for this application. You will need this in your iptables script :
# Allows BITCOIN traffic from anywhere -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 8333 -j ACCEPT # Allows RPC calls to the bitcoin server from localhost -A INPUT -p tcp -s 127.0.0.1 --dport 8332 -j ACCEPT
Hello I understand (rudimentary) that my Private key is equal to the access and ability to send my coins (BTC or Otherwise). My question though - is my private key, the same as the password I used when I setup "Encrypt Wallet" under the options menu? How can I get access to my private key to write it down and store it in a safe-deposit box? I'll explain my setup, and you can tell me if it's awful or good? I have an encrypted true-crypt flash-drive. I have my bitcoin-qt shortcut pointing it's data-directory to the true-crypt flash-drive. (I deleted the old files from %appdata% and wiped them from the trashbin with CCleaner) I insert my encrypted flash drive, mount the drive with truecrypt, then launch my Bitcoin-QT client which uses the truecrypt drive as its datadir. I DID select to "encrypt" the wallet within the bitcoin -qt application itself, irregardless of Truecrypt. I signed up for coinbase and linked my bank accounts. I added some coins from USD a little while ago. Then I went into my addresses section of my wallet, and sent my coins to that address. My question:Which file is the HOT file that I need to protect with my life? The entire "Wallet" set of files and their backups? WHere can I actually see my private key? Is my private key the same as my encryption password? Please help me!
Bitcoin Core 0.13.2 released | Wladimir J. van der Laan | Jan 03 2017
Wladimir J. van der Laan on Jan 03 2017: -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA512 Bitcoin Core version 0.13.2 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/bitcoin-core-0.13.2/ Or by bittorrent: magnet:?xt=urn:btih:746697d03db3ff531158b1133bab5d1e4cef4e5a&dn;=bitcoin-core-0.13.2&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.leechers-paradise.org%3A6969&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F This is a new minor version release, including various bugfixes and performance improvements, as well as updated translations. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues To receive security and update notifications, please subscribe to: https://bitcoincore.org/en/list/announcements/join/ Compatibility Microsoft ended support for Windows XP on April 8th, 2014, an OS initially released in 2001. This means that not even critical security updates will be released anymore. Without security updates, using a bitcoin wallet on a XP machine is irresponsible at least. In addition to that, with 0.12.x there have been varied reports of Bitcoin Core randomly crashing on Windows XP. It is not clear what the source of these crashes is, but it is likely that upstream libraries such as Qt are no longer being tested on XP. We do not have time nor resources to provide support for an OS that is end-of-life. From 0.13.0 on, Windows XP is no longer supported. Users are suggested to upgrade to a newer version of Windows, or install an alternative OS that is supported. No attempt is made to prevent installing or running the software on Windows XP, you can still do so at your own risk, but do not expect it to work: do not report issues about Windows XP to the issue tracker.
From 0.13.1 onwards OS X 10.7 is no longer supported. 0.13.0 was intended to work on 10.7+,
but severe issues with the libc++ version on 10.7.x keep it from running reliably. 0.13.1 now requires 10.8+, and will communicate that to 10.7 users, rather than crashing unexpectedly. Notable changes Change to wallet handling of mempool rejection When a newly created transaction failed to enter the mempool due to the limits on chains of unconfirmed transactions the sending RPC calls would return an error. The transaction would still be queued in the wallet and, once some of the parent transactions were confirmed, broadcast after the software was restarted. This behavior has been changed to return success and to reattempt mempool insertion at the same time transaction rebroadcast is attempted, avoiding a need for a restart. Transactions in the wallet which cannot be accepted into the mempool can be abandoned with the previously existing abandontransaction RPC (or in the GUI via a context menu on the transaction). 0.13.2 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect behavior, not code moves, refactors and string updates. For convenience in locating the code changes and accompanying discussion, both the pull request and git merge commit are mentioned.
#9293 e591c10 [0.13 Backport #9053] IBD using chainwork instead of height and not using header timestamp (gmaxwell)
#9053 5b93eee IBD using chainwork instead of height and not using header timestamps (gmaxwell)
RPC and other APIs
#8845 1d048b9 Don't return the address of a P2SH of a P2SH (jnewbery)
#9041 87fbced keypoololdest denote Unix epoch, not GMT (s-matthew-english)
#9122 f82c81b fix getnettotals RPC description about timemillis (visvirial)
#9042 5bcb05d [rpc] ParseHash: Fail when length is not 64 (MarcoFalke)
#9194 f26dab7 Add option to return non-segwit serialization via rpc (instagibbs)
[Meta] Re: Bitcoin Core 0.13.2 released | Luke Dashjr | Jan 07 2017
Luke Dashjr on Jan 07 2017: I don't think release announcements are really appropriate for the bitcoin-dev mailing list. People who want these can subscribe to the bitcoin-core-dev list and/or the Core announce mailing list. Maybe sending to bitcoin-discuss would also make sense, but not bitcoin-dev... Luke On Tuesday, January 03, 2017 8:47:36 AM Wladimir J. van der Laan via bitcoin- dev wrote:
Bitcoin Core version 0.13.2 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/bitcoin-core-0.13.2/ Or by bittorrent: magnet:?xt=urn:btih:746697d03db3ff531158b1133bab5d1e4cef4e5a&dn=bitcoin-co re-0.13.2&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr=udp% 3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de% 3A80%2Fannounce&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr=udp%3A%2F% 2Ftracker.leechers-paradise.org%3A6969&ws=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2 F This is a new minor version release, including various bugfixes and performance improvements, as well as updated translations. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues To receive security and update notifications, please subscribe to: https://bitcoincore.org/en/list/announcements/join/ Compatibility Microsoft ended support for Windows XP on [April 8th, 2014](https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/WindowsForBusiness/end-of-xp-support ), an OS initially released in 2001. This means that not even critical security updates will be released anymore. Without security updates, using a bitcoin wallet on a XP machine is irresponsible at least. In addition to that, with 0.12.x there have been varied reports of Bitcoin Core randomly crashing on Windows XP. It is [not clear](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues/7681#issuecomment-2174398 91) what the source of these crashes is, but it is likely that upstream libraries such as Qt are no longer being tested on XP. We do not have time nor resources to provide support for an OS that is end-of-life. From 0.13.0 on, Windows XP is no longer supported. Users are suggested to upgrade to a newer version of Windows, or install an alternative OS that is supported. No attempt is made to prevent installing or running the software on Windows XP, you can still do so at your own risk, but do not expect it to work: do not report issues about Windows XP to the issue tracker. From 0.13.1 onwards OS X 10.7 is no longer supported. 0.13.0 was intended to work on 10.7+, but severe issues with the libc++ version on 10.7.x keep it from running reliably. 0.13.1 now requires 10.8+, and will communicate that to 10.7 users, rather than crashing unexpectedly. Notable changes Change to wallet handling of mempool rejection When a newly created transaction failed to enter the mempool due to the limits on chains of unconfirmed transactions the sending RPC calls would return an error. The transaction would still be queued in the wallet and, once some of the parent transactions were confirmed, broadcast after the software was restarted. This behavior has been changed to return success and to reattempt mempool insertion at the same time transaction rebroadcast is attempted, avoiding a need for a restart. Transactions in the wallet which cannot be accepted into the mempool can be abandoned with the previously existing abandontransaction RPC (or in the GUI via a context menu on the transaction). 0.13.2 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect behavior, not code moves, refactors and string updates. For convenience in locating the code changes and accompanying discussion, both the pull request and git merge commit are mentioned.
#9293 e591c10 [0.13 Backport #9053] IBD using chainwork instead of
height and not using header timestamp (gmaxwell) - #9053 5b93eee IBD using chainwork instead of height and not using header timestamps (gmaxwell)
RPC and other APIs
8845 1d048b9 Don't return the address of a P2SH of a P2SH (jnewbery)
9041 87fbced keypoololdest denote Unix epoch, not GMT
(s-matthew-english) - #9122 f82c81b fix getnettotals RPC description about timemillis (visvirial) - #9042 5bcb05d [rpc] ParseHash: Fail when length is not 64 (MarcoFalke) - #9194 f26dab7 Add option to return non-segwit serialization via rpc (instagibbs) - #9347 b711390 [0.13.2] wallet/rpc backports (MarcoFalke)
#9292 c365556 Complain when unknown rpcserialversion is specified
(sipa) - #9322 49a612f [qa] Don't set unknown rpcserialversion (MarcoFalke)
#9290 35174a0 Make RelayWalletTransaction attempt to AcceptToMemoryPool
(gmaxwell) - #9295 43bcfca Bugfix: Fundrawtransaction: don't terminate when keypool is empty (jonasschnelli) - #9302 f5d606e Return txid even if ATMP fails for new transaction (sipa) - #9262 fe39f26 Prefer coins that have fewer ancestors, sanity check txn before ATMP (instagibbs)
Tests and QA
#9159 eca9b46 Wait for specific block announcement in p2p-compactblocks
(ryanofsky) - #9186 dccdc3a Fix use-after-free in scheduler tests (laanwj)
#9168 3107280 Add assert_raises_message to check specific error message
Facilitating Discussion of 0.9.0 FINAL of Bitcoin Core (aka Bitcoin QT)
To facilitate a detailed discussion of some of the finer points of this update, I added numbering to each bullet in release notes, and also posted it to RapGenius, where people can annotate it if they'd like. I'm not a programmer, but I'm curious to hear what programmers and other people smarter than me have to say about all the new changes. http://rapgenius.com/The-bitcoin-dev-team-bitcoin-090-final-lyrics EDIT1 : Doh! Reddit detroyed all the formatting and now i'm on baby duty so can't fix it. EDIT 2: Nap time! Just fixed the formatting :) ---- 0.9.0 RELEASE NOTES ---- Part 1. RPC: 1.1 - New notion of 'conflicted' transactions, reported as confirmations: -1 1.2 - 'listreceivedbyaddress' now provides tx ids 1.3 - Add raw transaction hex to 'gettransaction' output 1.4 - Updated help and tests for 'getreceivedby(account|address)' 1.5 - In 'getblock', accept 2nd 'verbose' parameter, similar to getrawtransaction, but defaulting to 1 for backward compatibility 1.6 - Add 'verifychain', to verify chain database at runtime 1.7 - Add 'dumpwallet' and 'importwallet' RPCs 1.8 - 'keypoolrefill' gains optional size parameter 1.9 - Add 'getbestblockhash', to return tip of best chain 1.10 - Add 'chainwork' (the total work done by all blocks since the genesis block) to 'getblock' output 1.11 - Make RPC password resistant to timing attacks 1.12 - Clarify help messages and add examples 1.13 - Add 'getrawchangeaddress' call for raw transaction change destinations 1.14 - Reject insanely high fees by default in 'sendrawtransaction' 1.15 - Add RPC call 'decodescript' to decode a hex-encoded transaction script 1.16 - Make 'validateaddress' provide redeemScript 1.17 - Add 'getnetworkhashps' to get the calculated network hashrate 1.18 - New RPC 'ping' command to request ping, new 'pingtime' and 'pingwait' fields in 'getpeerinfo' output 1.19 - Adding new 'addrlocal' field to 'getpeerinfo' output 1.20 - Add verbose boolean to 'getrawmempool' 1.21 - Add rpc command 'getunconfirmedbalance' to obtain total unconfirmed balance 1.22 - Explicitly ensure that wallet is unlocked in importprivkey 1.23 - Add check for valid keys in importprivkey Part 2. Command-line options: 2.1 - New option: -nospendzeroconfchange to never spend unconfirmed change outputs 2.2 - New option: -zapwallettxes to rebuild the wallet's transaction information 2.3 - Rename option '-tor' to '-onion' to better reflect what it does 2.4 - Add '-disablewallet' mode to let bitcoind run entirely without wallet (when built with wallet) 2.5 - Update default '-rpcsslciphers' to include TLSv1.2 2.6 - make '-logtimestamps' default on and rework help-message 2.7 - RPC client option: '-rpcwait', to wait for server start 2.8 - Remove '-logtodebugger' 2.9 - Allow -noserver with bitcoind Part 3. Block-chain handling and storage: 3.1 - Update leveldb to 1.15 3.2 - Check for correct genesis (prevent cases where a datadir from the wrong network is accidentally loaded) 3.3 - Allow txindex to be removed and add a reindex dialog 3.4 - Log aborted block database rebuilds 3.5 - Store orphan blocks in serialized form, to save memory 3.6 - Limit the number of orphan blocks in memory to 750 3.7 - Fix non-standard disconnected transactions causing mempool orphans 3.8 - Add a new checkpoint at block 279,000 Part 4. Wallet: 4.1 - Bug fixes and new regression tests to correctly compute the balance of wallets containing double-spent (or mutated) transactions 4.2 - Store key creation time. Calculate whole-wallet birthday 4.3 - Optimize rescan to skip blocks prior to birthday 4.4 - Let user select wallet file with -wallet=foo.dat 4.5 - Consider generated coins mature at 101 instead of 120 blocks 4.6 - Improve wallet load time 4.7 - Don't count txins for priority to encourage sweeping 4.8 - Don't create empty transactions when reading a corrupted wallet 4.9 - Fix rescan to start from beginning after importprivkey 4.10 - Only create signatures with low S values Part 5. Mining: 5.1 - Increase default -blockmaxsize/prioritysize to 750K/50K 5.2 - 'getblocktemplate' does not require a key to create a block template 5.3 - Mining code fee policy now matches relay fee policy Part 6. Protocol and network: 6.1 - Drop the fee required to relay a transaction to 0.01mBTC per kilobyte 6.2 - Send tx relay flag with version 6.3 - New 'reject' P2P message (BIP 0061, see https://gist.github.com/gavinandresen/7079034 for draft) 6.4 - Dump addresses every 15 minutes instead of 10 seconds 6.5 - Relay OP_RETURN data TxOut as standard transaction type 6.6 - Remove CENT-output free transaction rule when relaying 6.7 - Lower maximum size for free transaction creation 6.8 - Send multiple inv messages if mempool.size > MAX_INV_SZ 6.9 - Split MIN_PROTO_VERSION into INIT_PROTO_VERSION and MIN_PEER_PROTO_VERSION 6.10 - Do not treat fFromMe transaction differently when broadcasting 6.11 - Process received messages one at a time without sleeping between messages 6.12 - Improve logging of failed connections 6.13 - Bump protocol version to 70002 6.14 - Add some additional logging to give extra network insight 6.15 - Added new DNS seed from bitcoinstats.com Part 7. Validation: 7.1 - Log reason for non-standard transaction rejection 7.2 - Prune provably-unspendable outputs, and adapt consistency check for it 7.3 - Detect any sufficiently long fork and add a warning 7.4 - Call the -alertnotify script when we see a long or invalid fork 7.5 - Fix multi-block reorg transaction resurrection 7.6 - Reject non-canonically-encoded serialization sizes 7.7 - Reject dust amounts during validation 7.8 - Accept nLockTime transactions that finalize in the next block Part 8. Build system: 8.1 - Switch to autotools-based build system 8.2 - Build without wallet by passing --disable-wallet to configure, this removes the BerkeleyDB dependency 8.3 - Upgrade gitian dependencies (libpng, libz, libupnpc, boost, openssl) to more recent versions 8.4 - Windows 64-bit build support 8.5 - Solaris compatibility fixes 8.6 - Check integrity of gitian input source tarballs 8.7 - Enable full GCC Stack-smashing protection for all OSes Part 9. GUI: 9.1 - Switch to Qt 5.2.0 for Windows build 9.2 - Add payment request (BIP 0070) support 9.3 - Improve options dialog 9.4 - Show transaction fee in new send confirmation dialog 9.5 - Add total balance in overview page 9.6 - Allow user to choose data directory on first start, when data directory ismissing, or when the -choosedatadir option is passed 9.7 - Save and restore window positions 9.8 - Add vout index to transaction id in transactions details dialog 9.9 - Add network traffic graph in debug window 9.10 - Add open URI dialog 9.11 - Add Coin Control Features 9.12 - Improve receive coins workflow: make the 'Receive' tab into a form to request payments, and move historical address list functionality to File menu 9.13 - Rebrand to Bitcoin Core 9.14 - Move initialization/shutdown to a thread. This prevents "Not responding" messages during startup. Also show a window during shutdown 9.15 - Don't regenerate autostart link on every client startup 9.16 - Show and store message of normal bitcoin:URI 9.17 - Fix richtext detection hang issue on very old Qt versions 9.18 - OS X: Make use of the 10.8+ user notification center to display Growl-like notifications 9.19 - OS X: Added NSHighResolutionCapable flag to Info.plist for better font rendering on Retina displays 9.20 - OS X: Fix bitcoin-qt startup crash when clicking dock icon 9.21 - Linux: Fix Gnome bitcoin: URI handler Part 10. Miscellaneous: 10.1 - Add Linux script (contrib/qos/tc.sh) to limit outgoing bandwidth 10.2 - Add '-regtest' mode, similar to testnet but private with instant block generation with 'setgenerate' RPC 10.3 - Add 'linearize.py' script to contrib, for creating bootstrap.dat 10.4 - Add separate bitcoin-cli client
Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 released | Wladimir | Feb 16 2015
Wladimir on Feb 16 2015: Bitcoin Core version 0.10.0 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/ This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and bug fixes. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues The whole distribution is also available as torrent: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/bitcoin-0.10.0.torrent magnet:?xt=urn:btih:170c61fe09dafecfbb97cb4dccd32173383f4e68&dn;=0.10.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrading warning Because release 0.10.0 makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with older versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. Notable changes Faster synchronization Bitcoin Core now uses 'headers-first synchronization'. This means that we first ask peers for block headers (a total of 27 megabytes, as of December 2014) and validate those. In a second stage, when the headers have been discovered, we download the blocks. However, as we already know about the whole chain in advance, the blocks can be downloaded in parallel from all available peers. In practice, this means a much faster and more robust synchronization. On recent hardware with a decent network link, it can be as little as 3 hours for an initial full synchronization. You may notice a slower progress in the very first few minutes, when headers are still being fetched and verified, but it should gain speed afterwards. A few RPCs were added/updated as a result of this:
getblockchaininfo now returns the number of validated headers in addition to
the number of validated blocks.
getpeerinfo lists both the number of blocks and headers we know we have in
common with each peer. While synchronizing, the heights of the blocks that we have requested from peers (but haven't received yet) are also listed as 'inflight'.
A new RPC getchaintips lists all known branches of the block chain,
including those we only have headers for. Transaction fee changes This release automatically estimates how high a transaction fee (or how high a priority) transactions require to be confirmed quickly. The default settings will create transactions that confirm quickly; see the new 'txconfirmtarget' setting to control the tradeoff between fees and confirmation times. Fees are added by default unless the 'sendfreetransactions' setting is enabled. Prior releases used hard-coded fees (and priorities), and would sometimes create transactions that took a very long time to confirm. Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities are saved in the data directory in the fee_estimates.dat file just before program shutdown, and are read in at startup. New command line options for transaction fee changes:
-txconfirmtarget=n : create transactions that have enough fees (or priority)
so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 1). This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
-sendfreetransactions : Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible
(default: 0) New RPC commands for fee estimation:
estimatefee nblocks : Returns approximate fee-per-1,000-bytes needed for
a transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate.
estimatepriority nblocks : Returns approximate priority needed for
a zero-fee transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough free transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate. RPC access control changes Subnet matching for the purpose of access control is now done by matching the binary network address, instead of with string wildcard matching. For the user this means that -rpcallowip takes a subnet specification, which can be
a single IP address (e.g. 22.214.171.124 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde)
a network/CIDR (e.g. 126.96.36.199/24 or fe80::0000/64)
a network/netmask (e.g. 188.8.131.52/255.255.255.0 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff)
An arbitrary number of -rpcallow arguments can be given. An incoming connection will be accepted if its origin address matches one of them. For example: | 0.9.x and before | 0.10.x | |--------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------| | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 (unchanged) | | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.0/24 | | -rpcallowip=192.168.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.0.0/16 | | -rpcallowip=* (dangerous!) | -rpcallowip=::/0 (still dangerous!) | Using wildcards will result in the rule being rejected with the following error in debug.log:
Error: Invalid -rpcallowip subnet specification: *. Valid are a single IP (e.g. 184.108.40.206), a network/netmask (e.g. 220.127.116.11/255.255.255.0) or a network/CIDR (e.g. 18.104.22.168/24).
REST interface A new HTTP API is exposed when running with the -rest flag, which allows unauthenticated access to public node data. It is served on the same port as RPC, but does not need a password, and uses plain HTTP instead of JSON-RPC. Assuming a local RPC server running on port 8332, it is possible to request:
In every case, EXT can be bin (for raw binary data), hex (for hex-encoded binary) or json. For more details, see the doc/REST-interface.md document in the repository. RPC Server "Warm-Up" Mode The RPC server is started earlier now, before most of the expensive intialisations like loading the block index. It is available now almost immediately after starting the process. However, until all initialisations are done, it always returns an immediate error with code -28 to all calls. This new behaviour can be useful for clients to know that a server is already started and will be available soon (for instance, so that they do not have to start it themselves). Improved signing security For 0.10 the security of signing against unusual attacks has been improved by making the signatures constant time and deterministic. This change is a result of switching signing to use libsecp256k1 instead of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 is a cryptographic library optimized for the curve Bitcoin uses which was created by Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille. There exist attacks against most ECC implementations where an attacker on shared virtual machine hardware could extract a private key if they could cause a target to sign using the same key hundreds of times. While using shared hosts and reusing keys are inadvisable for other reasons, it's a better practice to avoid the exposure. OpenSSL has code in their source repository for derandomization and reduction in timing leaks that we've eagerly wanted to use for a long time, but this functionality has still not made its way into a released version of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 achieves significantly stronger protection: As far as we're aware this is the only deployed implementation of constant time signing for the curve Bitcoin uses and we have reason to believe that libsecp256k1 is better tested and more thoroughly reviewed than the implementation in OpenSSL.  https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/161.pdf Watch-only wallet support The wallet can now track transactions to and from wallets for which you know all addresses (or scripts), even without the private keys. This can be used to track payments without needing the private keys online on a possibly vulnerable system. In addition, it can help for (manual) construction of multisig transactions where you are only one of the signers. One new RPC, importaddress, is added which functions similarly to importprivkey, but instead takes an address or script (in hexadecimal) as argument. After using it, outputs credited to this address or script are considered to be received, and transactions consuming these outputs will be considered to be sent. The following RPCs have optional support for watch-only: getbalance, listreceivedbyaddress, listreceivedbyaccount, listtransactions, listaccounts, listsinceblock, gettransaction. See the RPC documentation for those methods for more information. Compared to using getrawtransaction, this mechanism does not require -txindex, scales better, integrates better with the wallet, and is compatible with future block chain pruning functionality. It does mean that all relevant addresses need to added to the wallet before the payment, though. Consensus library Starting from 0.10.0, the Bitcoin Core distribution includes a consensus library. The purpose of this library is to make the verification functionality that is critical to Bitcoin's consensus available to other applications, e.g. to language bindings such as [python-bitcoinlib](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-bitcoinlib) or alternative node implementations. This library is called libbitcoinconsensus.so (or, .dll for Windows). Its interface is defined in the C header [bitcoinconsensus.h](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/0.10/src/script/bitcoinconsensus.h). In its initial version the API includes two functions:
bitcoinconsensus_verify_script verifies a script. It returns whether the indicated input of the provided serialized transaction
correctly spends the passed scriptPubKey under additional constraints indicated by flags
bitcoinconsensus_version returns the API version, currently at an experimental 0
The functionality is planned to be extended to e.g. UTXO management in upcoming releases, but the interface for existing methods should remain stable. Standard script rules relaxed for P2SH addresses The IsStandard() rules have been almost completely removed for P2SH redemption scripts, allowing applications to make use of any valid script type, such as "n-of-m OR y", hash-locked oracle addresses, etc. While the Bitcoin protocol has always supported these types of script, actually using them on mainnet has been previously inconvenient as standard Bitcoin Core nodes wouldn't relay them to miners, nor would most miners include them in blocks they mined. bitcoin-tx It has been observed that many of the RPC functions offered by bitcoind are "pure functions", and operate independently of the bitcoind wallet. This included many of the RPC "raw transaction" API functions, such as createrawtransaction. bitcoin-tx is a newly introduced command line utility designed to enable easy manipulation of bitcoin transactions. A summary of its operation may be obtained via "bitcoin-tx --help" Transactions may be created or signed in a manner similar to the RPC raw tx API. Transactions may be updated, deleting inputs or outputs, or appending new inputs and outputs. Custom scripts may be easily composed using a simple text notation, borrowed from the bitcoin test suite. This tool may be used for experimenting with new transaction types, signing multi-party transactions, and many other uses. Long term, the goal is to deprecate and remove "pure function" RPC API calls, as those do not require a server round-trip to execute. Other utilities "bitcoin-key" and "bitcoin-script" have been proposed, making key and script operations easily accessible via command line. Mining and relay policy enhancements Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward. If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you. If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. The prioritisetransaction RPC method has been added to enable miners to manipulate the priority of transactions on an individual basis. Bitcoin Core now supports BIP 22 long polling, so mining software can be notified immediately of new templates rather than having to poll periodically. Support for BIP 23 block proposals is now available in Bitcoin Core's getblocktemplate method. This enables miners to check the basic validity of their next block before expending work on it, reducing risks of accidental hardforks or mining invalid blocks. Two new options to control mining policy:
-datacarrier=0/1 : Relay and mine "data carrier" (OP_RETURN) transactions
if this is 1.
-datacarriersize=n : Maximum size, in bytes, we consider acceptable for
"data carrier" outputs. The relay policy has changed to more properly implement the desired behavior of not relaying free (or very low fee) transactions unless they have a priority above the AllowFreeThreshold(), in which case they are relayed subject to the rate limiter. BIP 66: strict DER encoding for signatures Bitcoin Core 0.10 implements BIP 66, which introduces block version 3, and a new consensus rule, which prohibits non-DER signatures. Such transactions have been non-standard since Bitcoin v0.8.0 (released in February 2013), but were technically still permitted inside blocks. This change breaks the dependency on OpenSSL's signature parsing, and is required if implementations would want to remove all of OpenSSL from the consensus code. The same miner-voting mechanism as in BIP 34 is used: when 751 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, the new consensus rule becomes active for those blocks. When 951 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, it becomes mandatory for all blocks. Backward compatibility with current mining software is NOT provided, thus miners should read the first paragraph of "Mining and relay policy enhancements" above. 0.10.0 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect external behavior, not code moves, refactors or string updates. RPC:
f923c07 Support IPv6 lookup in bitcoin-cli even when IPv6 only bound on localhost
b641c9c Fix addnode "onetry": Connect with OpenNetworkConnection
I set up Bitcoin (application) software on a WinXP machine in 2011 and received some Bitcoin. I set the machine aside, disconnected from the internet. Now I want to access the 2011 Bitcoin. Lately I This default location can be overridden using the -datadir configuration parameter or by adding a datadir parameter to the bitcoin.conf file. A similar data directory is created for either the testnet and regtest configuration in sub directories assuming either of these have been configured to avoid conflicting with the mainnet files. Filename Description; banlist.dat: stores the IPs/Subnets ... Persistent settings are used in followup PRs #15936 to unify gui settings between bitcoin-qt and bitcoind, and #15937 to add a load_on_startup flag to the loadwallet RPC and maintain a dynamic list of wallets that should be loaded on startup that also can be shared between bitcoind and bitcoin-qt. Balance of your private key database to the Aug 16, 2017 Page 1 of 2 Private Key Bitcoin posted in Show Off: HELLO NULLED This website is all database of address on the blockchain Spoiler 1. This will load the address-calculation script. Start your Bitcoin-QT client. The easiest way to generate physical randomness is with dice. You need only a device with the Interneta valid Bitcoin All ... 一、Bitcoin-qt客户端加密后 如需要导出某一地址对应的私钥，需要先调用 walletpassphrase 密码 解锁持续时间（秒）， 如：walletpassphrase h123456789*/* 120，注意留有英文空格。phrase为短语的意思。 然后 d...
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