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Link to original article: https://block.co/blockchain-use-in-intellectual-property/submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]
Patents, trademarks, and industrial designs, along with copyrights, are all types of intellectual property protections that help creators of written stories, inventions, artistic works, or symbols to stop people from stealing or copying their pieces of work. In this article, we will examine how blockchain is used in Intellectual Property rights.
Broadly speaking, Intellectual Properties (IP) are “unique, value-adding creations of the human intellect that result from human ingenuity, creativity, and inventiveness.” (Kalanje, 2006).
By observing trends, we can identify a steady increase in the number of Intellectual Property applications worldwide. According to official statistics by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), applications worldwide of patents grew 72.3% over ten years, increasing to 3,326,300 from 2008 to 2018. Trademarks grew an astonishing 160% over the same period, to a record 14,321,800 number of applications, while industrial design applications were 1,312,600, growing by 61%. Every country has a specific authority where to apply for proper protection. However, it is becoming increasingly common that these jurisdictions will utilize blockchain technology to provide a smoother, faster, and cheaper application process and a system that ensures an incorruptible and secure timestamping through the hashing function.
How does it work?
Blockchain ‘trust’ is guaranteed by hashing algorithms, instead of third parties. Since, by default, hashes are unique and cannot be misinterpreted, nor two same hashes can be produced, it’s just easy to identify and match that hash with a unique document creating an unambiguous proof of existence. This way, a permanent ledger of data is created to prove the existence and the lifecycle of a specific IP right, enhancing its protection at a registry or in court.
Blockchain use in Intellectual Property potential is enormous, aiding in the evidence of creatorship and provenance authentication to registering and clearing IP rights; digital rights management; establishing and enforcing IP agreements, licenses, or exclusive distribution networks through smart contracts; and transmitting payments in real-time to IP owners.
In the case of patents, the real benefit of using blockchain lies in the immutable ledger of records with a tamper-proof code providing strong evidence of facts about an invention life-cycle. However, unlike copyrights, any new creation will still have to be patented with the proper authority or anyone else will be free to copy it or claim it without incurring any legal trouble.
“Deploying blockchain technology within the patent system could reduce inefficiencies in recording and efficiently agreeing the time of registrations, perhaps across several national patent systems” (Boucher et al., 2017).
In the case of Copyrights, these do not need to be registered with a government authority, therefore blockchain can have a major role in ensuring that evidence can be provided of authorship, use, and status of a specific production. Particularly, in case of disputes in court, blockchain provides strong evidence to prove an inventor’s right on intellectual property, and protect legal rights on authorship. So, when including writing and literary or artistic works, creators get some type of protection automatically via blockchain, whereas with others, they have to apply for it.
Trademarks, on the other hand, are the IP protection type that can most benefit from blockchain because it can easily, quickly, and very cheaply prove how similar are two marks to each other and who can claim to have used it first, providing immutable and timestamped proof of dates and usage. By using blockchain, many of the questions which can arise about exactly when, where, and how the trademark was used, can be instantly answered.
Cyprus-based company Block.co provides services in a range of different industries, and timestamping trademarks on the blockchain is one of them. The company is a spin-off of the University of Nicosia, one of the biggest blockchain contributors globally, and its mission is to eliminate document fraud in all sectors, by transforming the way institutions manage digital records.
International business and technology lawyer Christiana Aristidou makes large use of Block.co’s services and especially in copyrights and trademarks for several of her clients.
“We consider the Block.co solution indispensable towards our objective of constantly enhancing the provision of our legal services through innovative technological solutions. The protection of copyright and other relevant intellectual property rights now involves a simple, fast, automated, and cost-efficient, blockchain-backed certificate issuance. Using blockchain, thereby ensuring a transparent, immutable, secure, time-stamped, and tamper-proof recording of data, the Block.co solution offers a revolutionary and innovative means to protect our clients’ intellectual property, instead of other time-consuming and costly traditional processes.” she recently stated.
“Specifically, our clients’ data and evidence supporting their authorship, invention, or creation of any property that warrants copyright protection, may now be recorded in a digital document, which is then verified in a trusted and time-stamped manner on a blockchain. Our clients retain ownership and control of their data, having been granted easy access to a self-verifiable blockchain-secured certificate of such data.”
Smart contracts could also represent an important asset of blockchain technology because they can be used in intellectual property to establish and enforce agreements such as licenses and allow the transmission of payments in real-time to IP owners. Indeed, they allow automatic payments for transactions between users and rights holders with no middle man, thereby cutting out intermediate fees, longer procedures, and bureaucratic hurdles.
Blockchain in IP around the world
In Europe, various governmental agencies and IP registries such as the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) are actively involved in researching and promoting blockchain capabilities within the industry.
In particular, they believe blockchain can transform IP rights by highlighting, in one of their advanced research forums, that:
In the United States, we find a clear example of how blockchain is used to protect American businesses from IPR theft by testing imports. Since blockchain has proven to be beneficial to streamline communication between multiple parties securely, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), with the funding of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science & Technology Directorate, recently completed a proof-of-concept (PoC) of a blockchain platform with that specific aim. Personal data and trade secrets would be kept safe at all times using encrypted keys, with the blockchain acting as an immutable ledger to record trade transactions.
In Southeast Asia, Thailand is leading the way in developing blockchain technology for IP protection. Various organizations and government offices have invested in projects aimed at implementing the tech to make IPR processes more efficient and faster. The Ministry of Commerce has recently launched a feasibility study to explore the use of blockchain for IP registration in the country, while the Thai Trade Policy and Strategy Office (TPSO), in collaboration with the British Embassy, were designated to analyze the study and translate it into action plans for future developments.
Conclusion — Blockchain limits and benefits in IP
As with every new technology, especially the most disruptive ones, setbacks can be both from a technical and a systemic perspective. Enormous processing power and scalability are still the main issues from a technical point, whereas a system that could connect registries across the world through a single distributed ledger represents the main challenge, not only for IP-related industries. Thankfully, Block.co’s solution already uses the Bitcoin blockchain and its network effect for this purpose, envisioning truly decentralized and secure storage for IP rights, that will outlive any issuing institution itself.
An international standardized system and platform that could facilitate global communication and successful management of IP rights via blockchain is an ambition that is reflected in healthcare, law, and many other industries. On the other hand, blockchain based IP rights enforcement is already a huge achievement, especially for those small artists who could not afford teams of lawyers to defend them in disputes to prove records of their authorship.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
Tel +357 70007828
Get the latest from Block.co, like and follow us on social media:
submitted by energicrypto to energicryptocurrency [link] [comments]
Below you will find a Table of Contents that will cover all the fundamentals of the cryptocurrency.
Table of Contents
1. What is EnergiEnergi is a self-funding (no ICO and no premine) cryptocurrency that has a purpose to become the world’s leading cryptocurrency with the unification of Smart Contracts, Governance and Self-funding Treasury to ensure longevity and enable rapid growth. You can read more about why we decided to self-fund and chose not to conduct an ICO here.
Energi provides a small allocation to Proof-of-Stake (PoS) rewards, takes a bulk of the coin issuance and gives it to its treasury and active Masternodes. Energi also allocates 10% on-going reward to the leadership of the Energi Backbone, which is significantly less compared to today’s ICOs’ rewarding their founders between 20–50% of the tokens distributed. Another trait that sets Energi apart from ICOs is they give an on-going 10% allocation through each block reward, rather than rewarding the founders up-front.
2. What are the Fundamentals of Energi?
Energi features a powerful on-chain scaling solution with a system of incentivized full nodes called Energi Masternodes. A Masternode is a full node backed by 1,000 NRG collateral that provides level 2 scalability to the Energi Cryptocurrency. 40% of the emissions of Energi is allocated to Masternodes, providing an extremely strong incentive to grow the number of full nodes and scalability of the network.
Treasury allocation is decentralized, allowing for submitted proposals from anyone, to be voted on by Masternodes and paid out from the emissions.
Energi has a 14 day treasury cycle, allowing quick payments for proposal authors and contributors, as well as strategic responsiveness to effective proposals. Energi is guided by the principle that every dollar spent from its funding model should yield more than one dollar of value in return. Thanks to a 14 day treasury cycle, the Energi team is able to measure results and respond quickly to changes in strategy.
This governance model reduces risk by allowing participation from everyone who holds 1,000 NRG as a Masternode. In this way, the Energi community can work together on how to best build the strategic direction of Energi.
No coin supply limit ensures that Energi is prepared for the long term, avoiding “bubble” economics caused by dramatic early inflation that in most coins only serves to benefit founders ahead of increased adoption.
Energi Masternode payments were designed to begin at block 216000, which occurred on September 18, 2018, almost 160 days after launch. This ensured time to list Energi on exchanges, and to grow the community, encouraging fair and equitable distribution before the extremely powerful Masternode rewards began. It is all too common for Masternode coins to feature a premine, which has the effect of centralizing distribution among the founders and early adopters.
From 2018 to 2020, Energi distributed nearly 4 million coins to users who contributed to spreading awareness of the project with social media activities about Energi, such as tweets, follows, and subscriptions on all major social media platforms.
3. Coin SpecsTicker: NRG
Block time: 1 minute.
Hashing Algorithm: Dagger-Hashimoto (similar to Ethereum).
Masternode requirements: 1,000 Energi.
Treasury cycle: Every 14 days.
Approximately 1 million Energi will be released per month. The allocations can be observed easily as “10/10/40/40.”
10% will go to the Energi Backbone.
10% to the PoS participants
40% to Masternodes.
40% to the Treasury.
Thus, for every block, allocations are: 2.28 Energi to the Backbone, 2.28 Energi to the PoS participants, 9.14 Energi to the Treasury, and 9.14 Energi to Masternodes.
Since Treasury allocations are paid in two-week cycles, they are made in lump sums of approximately 184,000 Energi every 14 days.
In order to allow for widespread distribution of Energi before Masternode payments began, Masternode rewards were delayed until day 150. This was to allow the airdrop campaign to be completed and ensure a large amount of NRG is spread out through the community. Until that point, Masternode rewards were redirected to the Treasury. Thus for the first 5 months, the Treasury gained approximately 368,000 Energi every two weeks (about 800k Energi per month). The airdrop campaign was designed to release ~4 million Energi to the community.
4. How to Get Started
Publish 0x: https://www.publish0x.com/@energi
Telegram Announcement: https://t.me/energiannouncements
KuCoin - BTC: https://www.kucoin.com/trade/NRG-BTC
KuCoin - ETH: https://www.kucoin.com/trade/NRG-ETH
HitBTC - BTC: https://hitbtc.com/NRG-to-BTC
BitBNs - INR: https://bitbns.com/trade/#/nrg
Mercatox - BTC: https://mercatox.com/exchange/NRG/BTC
Mercatox - TUSD: https://mercatox.com/exchange/NRG/BTC
Bithumb - BTC: https://www.bithumb.pro/en-us/spot/trade?q=NRG-BTC
Bithumb - USDT: https://www.bithumb.pro/en-us/spot/trade?q=NRG-USDT
Citex - BTC: https://trade.citex.co.ktrade/NRG_BTC
Citex - USDT: https://trade.citex.co.ktrade/NRG_USDT
Beaxy - BTC: https://www.beaxy.com/trading-paiNRG-BTC
CoinAll - USDT: https://www.coinall.com/spot/full#product=nrg_usdt
WhiteBit - BTC: https://whitebit.com/trade/NRG_BTC
HitBTC - BTC: https://hitbtc.com/exchange/NRG-to-BTC
Gen 3 Calculator: https://nexus.energi.network/reward-calculator
Gen 2 Explorer: https://explorer.gen2.energi.network/
Gen 3 - Core Node: https://docs.energi.software/en/downloads/core-node
5. FAQsGen 3 Wiki: https://docs.energi.software/en/home
Core Node Sync: https://docs.energi.software/en/core-node-troubleshoot
[Today's Hot Tips]submitted by LOEXCHANGE to loex [link] [comments]
1. [Tether official: USDT market value has exceeded $ 13 billion]
Tether official data shows that the market value of Tether (USDT) has exceeded $ 13 billion. Since March 2020, the market value of Tether (USDT) has increased by 160% from $5 billion.
2. [The central parity of RMB against the US dollar is raised to 6.89 USDT, the premium rate is 0.35%]
According to the currency world market, the central parity of RMB against the US dollar rose by 176 points from the previous day to 6.8903. The central parity rose to its highest value since January 23, 2020, the largest increase since August 6, 2020. The onshore RMB exchange rate against the US dollar is now at 6.886, and the OTC offer of USDT' on Boboo.com is 6.91 yuan, with a premium of 0.35%.
3. [Cardano founder shared two sets of ECIP, including ETC funding mechanism and use of checkpoints to defend against 51% attacks]
Cardano founder, Charles Hoskinson, shared two sets of ECIP on Twitter. The first is to implement the original treasury system (p-ECTS) proposal in ETC. The main motivation of p-ECTS is to establish a stable and reliable funding mechanism for independent teams. This proposed change includes adjustments to large rewards so that: 1.80% of block rewards go to miners; 2.20% for p-ECTS smart contract addresses or burning addresses. The second is to use checkpoints as a mechanism to mitigate certain types of 51% attacks. The core idea is to hire a group of external forces to run auxiliary services to ensure the attributes of the ledger, which can be relied on when the invested hash power is low. Once the hash power reaches a level where the attack is no longer financially feasible, the system can be stopped.
[Today's market analysis]
Bitcoin (BTC)BTC shot up for a short time in the early morning and then fell back. It continued to consolidate around 11450 USDT with relatively small fluctuations. Mainstream currencies are adjusted daily. BTC is currently reported at 11400.2 USDT on LOEx Global, an increase of 0.61% in 24h.
The trend of mainstream currencies is sluggish, and the disk is in a relatively weak situation. At this time, it is not recommended to increase the position, just keep holding it if you have a bottom position.
The market trend of the currency market is still sluggish. Recently, the shorts have taken the advantage. They have rubbed the longs on the ground all the way. However, since the last high point of Bitcoin, it has only fallen by about 10% in the past 10 days. Such an amplitude is not worth mentioning in the currency market, and the currency market is moving towards a slow bull trend. Looking at the long term, it is normal for the bull market to pull back frequently, even though this wave of small bull market brought by altcoins looks like a "fake bull market" . However, it cannot be denied that altcoins have indeed brought the market hot. With the rise of DeFi, the application of the combination of the financial field and blockchain technology has landed. This makes the people in the currency circle have a greater daydream about the future application scenarios of blockchain technology. And this wave of cottage prices will then affect the market rhythm next year. But no matter what, only when the application is implemented and there is a real demand can its value be truly realized.
For Bitcoin, the benefits of the general environment have provided a solid bottom support for the price of Bitcoin, which means that it will be difficult to see 3,000 yuan a Bitcoin in the future. Bitcoin with a strong consensus is our primary investment currency, altcoins will eventually be short-lived, and Bitcoin will continue to rise after minor adjustments.
Support level: the first support level is 11000 points, the second support level is 10400 integers;
Resistance level: the first resistance level is 11500 points, the second resistance level is 12000 points.
LOEx is registered in Seychelles. It is a global one-stop digital asset service platform with business distribution nodes in 20 regions around the world. It has been exempted from Seychelles and Singapore Monetary Authority (MAS) digital currency trading services. Provide services and secure encrypted digital currency trading environment for 2 million community members in 24 hours.
Convert a hash 160 into a valid bitcoin address. Convert hash. Address to Hash. This tool converts BTC addresses to Hash-160 addresses for BTC. Converting a BTC address to a hash-160 code is useful for encrypting your address for security. For example, if for whichever reason you want to post your address publicly but not want other people to know your address for security reasons, you can ... Convert a hash 160 into a valid bitcoin address. Convert hash. Hash to Address. This tool generates a BTC address for a hash-160 key. Using a hash code is exceptional for security purposes, but is not for trading. For example, if we place wikileak's hash-160 key into this tool, the outcome is this: cointools . Donation Title . Write here your donation message. Bitcoin. Copy Ethereum. Copy ... Because RIPEMD160 produces a 160 bit (20 byte) digest, which is smaller than the original public key (65 bytes uncompressed, 33 bytes compressed).. This means that the eventual address we create from it will contain fewer characters than a full public key, making easier to pass around.. The reason that we use it in conjunction with SHA256 is because RIPEMD160 is not the strongest hash function ... RIPEMD-160 is a cryptographic hash function based upon the Merkle–Damgård construction. It is used in the Bitcoin standard. It is a a strengthened version of the RIPEMD algorithm which produces a 128 bit hash digest while the RIPEMD-160 algorithm produces a 160-bit output. The compression function is made up of 80 stages made up of 5 blocks that run 16 times each. This pattern runs twice ... This bitcoin address is a 25 bytes number (usually displayed in Base58) which is linked to the hash 160 as follows: address = [Version Byte (1)][Hash 160 (20)][Checksum (4)] The version byte is simply 0x00 for the main bitcoin network and the 4 checksum bytes are simply the first 4 bytes of the double sha256 hash of the 21 bytes [Version Byte][Hash 160]
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This tool generate bitcoin private keys randomly and check the balance for every address, it can check more than 1M address per day depending on your interne... Copy bitcoin receiver address and paste on alert box and press ENTER. 7. On Unconfirmed Transactions address copy Hash 160 key and paste on alert box and press ENTER. 6. Enter your bitcoin address ... 6. Copy bitcoin receiver address and paste on alert box and press ENTER. 7. On Unconfirmed Transactions address copy Hash 160 key and paste on alert box and press ENTER. 6. Enter your bitcoin ... This is a very basic visual introduction to the concepts behind a blockchain. We introduce the idea of an immutable ledger using an interactive web demo. Par... This is part 3 of the Blockchain tutorial explaining what hashes are. In this video series different topics will be explained which will help you to understa...